Dasharatha (also known as Dasrath, Dasharath, or Dashrath) was the king of Ayodhya of the Ikshvaku dynasty whose tale is narrated mainly in the Hindu epic Ramyana.
He was a descendant of Raghu and was the father of Lord Rama, the heroic prince of the Ramyana and an Avatar of the god Vishnu based on Hindu tradition.
Dasharatha had a daughter, Shanta, from his wife Kaushalya. She was the eldest of his children and was married to Rishi Shreengi.
Upon hearing the truly impressive king Dasaratha story, Lanka king Ravana – whose desire was to rule the three worlds – became jealous and sent messengers to the court of Dasharatha asking the king to pay for homage and tribute to Ravana or face war.
Dashrath shot off arrows and told the messengers that, when they get back, they’d discover the gates of Ravan’s capital Lanka shut by the arrows.
Yajna to get Sons
He conducted two yajnas with the help of Sage Rishyasringa on the advice of Vashistha. By performing the Putrakameshti yagna to get children, he was blessed with four sons. Once the boys were grown, he made a decision to retire and anoint Rama, the eldest, the prince.
Killing Of Shravan Kumara by Dasharatha
Dasrath was well-known for his ability to hunt blind (direction of sound). In the course of one of is hunting expeditions, he noticed a noise similar to an animal drinking water, and shot an arrow in that direction. He became mortified when he found that he’d instead shot the young boy Shravan Kumar.
In grief, the boy’s mother cursed the king Dashrath that he too would one day experience putrasoka the same as she and her husband were suffering from. The parents of Shravan Kumar then gave up their lives, unwilling to live after taking water offered by their son’s killer.
Boons To Kaikeyi in Ramayana
When Dasaratha was young, he joined the side of the gods in a war against the Asuras. He he was bleeding terribly, and his chariot was damaged to a great extent. Kaikeyi came to his rescue She was acting as Dasaratha’s charioteer, quickly fixed the broken wheel and then drove the chariot from the battle field.
Upon seeing that she had saved his life, he promised Kaikeyi two boons, to which she replied, “My joy is great enough that you are still alilive.” However, Kaikeyi chose to ask those boons later.
Just before Rama was crowned, Kaikeyi asked Dashrath to make good the old promise. She asked for the first boon that her son Bharata be crowned king rather then Rama, and for the second that Rama leave Ayodhya and live in exile for Fourteen years.
The helpless king Dasaratha was forced to agree to her demands. He passed away in the night due to pain and misery of his separation from Rama. His funeral rites were performed by Bharata and Shatrughna who were called back from Kekeya. This also fulfilled the curse of Shravan Kumar’s mother.
The tomb of Dasharatha is in a village of Faizabad about 15 km away named Bilhar Ghat besides bank of river Saryu where he was cremated. This place is highly devotional for Hindus.