All research studies are different but some factors are standard to all good pieces of research. Following are the 13 principles of good research work which must be observed in order to guarantee the quality:
- Objectivity: The objective of research work needs to be clearly described and common precept be used.
- Use of scientific process: The research process used must be explained in detail allowing other researchers to repeat the research in a systematic way.
- Planning: The design needs to be prepared in a most scientific way and all aspect of resources, time period, constraints and procedural factors be considered.
- Continuity: The study has to be conducted in a way that principle of continuity is guaranteed.
- Integrity: The researcher must document with complete frankness, weaknesses in procedural design and assess their impact on the results.
- Reliability: The validity and reliability of data needs to be examined with care.
- Adequacy of Data: The analysis of data must be sufficient to disclose its significance and the approaches to analysis employed must be suitable.
- Structure: This would mean that research is organized with particular sequence as per the well defined set of rules. Guessing and intuition in arriving at conclusions are discarded.
- Logic: What this means is that research is well guided by the rules of logical reasoning and logical process of induction and deduction are used.
- Empiricism: This means that research is connected basically to one or more facets of a real situation and deals with concrete data which gives a basis for external validity of research outcomes.
- Replicability: This principle enables research outcome to be validated by replicating the research and thus creating a sound basis for decision.
- Economics: Research must be completed within the allotted financial resources
- Time-frame: Frame research needs to be finished in the established time frame.
If the research is into people’s perceptions, a more qualitative, unstructured interview could be suitable. If the research seeks to find the scale of a problem or need, a more quantitative, randomized, statistical sample survey might be more suitable. Good research can often make use of a mix of methodologies, which complement each other. The research must be completed in an unbiased fashion. As far as possible the researcher shouldn’t influence the outcomes of the research at all.
The above listed 13 Principles of Good Research are important. Individuals associated with designing, conducting, analyzing and supervising the research must have a full understanding of the subject area. All research must be ethical and not unsafe in any way for the contributors.