Let’s first discuss about the time coordinate in research problem. In a decision problem, the time dimension is always the future. Consider the following questions. What must we do the first of the following month so as to generate the required effect the following month? What will customer response be to our contemplated advertising for the month of December? These questions point out the futurity element of the time dimension of a decision problem.
Managers constantly run the risk of making the right decision at the wrong time. Opportunities are temporary; the management which considers the environment static is bound to fail. For that reason, it is important that the choice maker and the researcher set up the correct time reference for the decision.
Figure 1: Time and Space Coordinates in Research Problem
What is the ideal time decision for the producer of small electric powered engines? The company is interested in awareness at the point in time when it contemplates possible actions, either to modify that awareness level or to operate within that constraint. If its decision is to be enforced on March 28, 2018, it would prefer to understand the conditions in the universe on that date. If the implementation would be delayed for 15 or 20 weeks, the business would wish to understand the state of the universe on those dates. Huge time intensive capital expenses might be initiated in the foreseeable future, but the size of the spending relies upon estimations of conditions at a distant point in time. The challenge of road development and the road’s capacity to manage peak loads are common examples. Study of the present or the past is suitable only in so far as it can indicate the future.
The space coordinates in research problem provide you with the geographical limits within which the action is to be taken. In the problem definition, these lines are hardly ever neat political partitions or subdivisions. Advertising media usually do not halt abruptly at city or state lines. Merchants and wholesalers normally welcome clients no matter where the consumers live. Sales territories may, however, be set up along country or state lines. Similarly, licensing by government units may decide the correct space coordinates. In the absence of these types of externally added constraints, the problem definition, in theory, frequently consists of the whole earth or the total of India. Recognition of this fact in the problem definition will help evaluate the utility of a research universe which is noticeably smaller sized.
The universe of interest could be described either conceptually or by enumeration. For instance, all current accounts of a corporation can be obtained from current records. These accounts have certain geographical locations, but the specification of location is not essential.
The enumerative method of universe specification is suitable provided that the decision maker has that group as his or her target and has a list available.