5 Steps of Research Process

All organizations function in the world of uncertainty. There exists no special approach that can completely get rid of uncertainty. However research methodology, more than any other procedure, can reduce the level of uncertainty. There are lots of models available and taught concerning how to conduct a research process. Therefore, the process offered here is just one of many; however, it is a tried and proven process.

Five Stages or 5 Steps of Research Process in Research Methodology

The process of research involves the following 5 steps:

Problem Definition

The initial step in the process is to recognize a problem. The research problem definition consists of three elements: (a) the specification of the unit of analysis for the research, (b) the identification of the particular units within the scope of the study (c) the specification of the type of information needed relating to those units. While defining the issues or problems, the investigator must take into consideration the goal of the study, the appropriate background information, what information is needed, and exactly how it will be utilized in decision making.

Designing the Research

The next step of research process is the research design-the blue print for the research. This step is dedicated to creating a plan or overall strategy on how you will solve the issue or problem identified. The fundamental issues attended to in research design are:

  • Should the research environment be internally disturbed by the researcher in particular way – an experimental design – or should the environment be studied as it exists with no such disturbances?
  • Decision about the number of observations to be made on each unit in the study.
  • Should just one sample be selected from the total population or should a number of samples be picked from different subgroups of the population?
  • What type of sampling procedure should be adopted for the study?

5 Steps of Research Process in Research Methodology

Figure: 5 Steps of Research Process

Collecting Data

The actual study starts with the gathering of data. The collection of data is an essential step in supplying the information required to answer the research question. Each and every study consists of the collection of some form of data-whether it is from the literature or from subjects-to answer the research question. Collection includes the basic definitions for the concepts to be investigated, particular wordings of inquiries to communicate those concepts, delineation of the environment where the data will be gathered, certain field processes, and the design of instruments for recording the actual data.

The data collection step should look into the diverse tasks of assignment and hiring of employees, methods for boosting response rates, expenses and bias sources under alternative collection techniques, and correct training of staff. The effects of each of these on accuracy, financial costs, and time limitations should be assessed. Lastly, the collection stage needs to be monitored in addition to planned. Regrettably, many well planned research projects have failed due to insufficient supervision. Processes which seem good but are improperly administered result in invalid results just as much as ill-conceived procedures do.

Analyze the Data

The researcher ultimately has data to analyze so that the research question can be answered. The researcher now evaluates the data based on the plan. The outcomes of this analysis are then reviewed and summarized in a way directly related to the research questions. Data Analysis attempts to discover how the units covered in the research project react to the items under study. This can be for individual questions or it may be for sets of questions- trying to detect whether any pattern exists. Data analysis could be ideally categorized as under:  Univariate analysis, Bivariate analysis and Multivariate analysis. Univariate analysis relates to just one characteristic of interest, bivariate analysis deals with a pair of characteristics of interest, and multivariate analysis deals with more than two characteristics of interest.

Watch a video on Steps of Research Process

Interpretation of Results

Not only the results be interpreted into action but the recommendations should also be conveyed to the executive in an easy to understand way. Technical jargans must be avoided except when absolutely important. The results must be displayed in an understandable structure so that they can be easily utilized in the decision making process. Furthermore, an oral presentation should be made to management using tables, figures, and charts to improve clarity and impact. In case the researcher is unable to make the results understandable to the executive the researcher may not have adequate knowledge of the problem to warrant adoption of the recommendation.

In this article, we have discussed about the five stages or 5 steps of research process in research methodology.

Research entails an organized procedure which concentrates on being objective and gathering a variety of information for analysis so the researcher can come to a conclusion.


  1. Hi can you please provide me a powerpoint ppt or pdf file on this topic.

  2. can you please provide me with some answers on the definition of hypothesis and difference of null hypothesis from alternative hypothesis

Speak Your Mind